Current (under development)

Electrochemical Wearable Narcotics Sweat Sensors

Recent advances in wearable sensors have made substantial progress in noninvasive and point-of-care monitoring and analysis of human health. Wearable sweat biosensors have attracted a great deal of attention, especially as sweat provides an ideal interface to access biomarker-rich information.

Recent studies have demonstrated that wearable sweat sensors are capable of detecting primarily electrolytes and metabolites (such as sodium, chlorine, lactate, glucose, etc.) for health monitoring and disease diagnostics. However, drug monitoring utilizing wearable sensors has been more challenging and has not yet been extensively explored. This is mostly due to the ultra-low opioid concentration in sweat, with levels in the ng/mL range.

Our research has demonstrated that our nanocomposites provide ultra-high sensitivity (particle per trillion level) to low-concentration compounds of different natures. Detectors for low-concentrated analytes have been developed, tested, and validated by several government agencies and private corporations.

The ultra-sensitivity of the developed nanosensors is critical for the detection of low-level concentrations of narcotics in human sweat. Our patented detection method will provide quantitative, rapid detection of narcotics. This moves sweat testing beyond the current binary standard of present/nonpresent to showing specific narcotic concentrations. This is extremely important for patient treatment and overdose preventing.

SEM images of NPSi (Nanoporous silicon)

Photo of OpiTest-Sweat prototype

Lateral Flow Immunoassay Fentanyl (FEN) Test Strips

Generally, the principle of lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) can be described as follows:  

Schematic diagram of a principle of competitive LFA for fentanyl detection.

A liquid sample containing an analyte of interest moves via capillary action through various zones of nitrocellulose (NC) membrane strip, on which molecules attached at a “Test line “interact with the analyte.

The figure above shows the schematic of LFA in our case, where BSA-FEN conjugates were deposited on the detection spot and conjugates of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) with anti-FEN monoclonal Antibody (AuNP-Ab) are presented in the running buffer alone or with a free FEN (detecting analyte). The flow delivers AuNP-Ab to the test spot where conjugates bind to deposit BSA-FEN and generate a color. In the presence of the free FEN in the sample, FEN blocks the binding sites of the Ab on the AuNP-Ab conjugate preventing AuNP- Ab from binding to the BSA-FEN resulting in the absence of color development (FEN positive).

Image of Semi-quantitative FEN test strips

Cytodiagnostics (our material supplier and manufacturer partner) developed its unique approach to ensure that the highest possible quality antibody conjugates are produced, with an established method to select the best concentrations and buffers. This allows deposition of BSA-FEN conjugate with a minimal concentration resulting in ultra-low LOD for FEN without compromising color development in the Test line and high contrast.


Based on the same scientific platform used for OpiTest the next generation of electrochemical diagnostics devices are under development. 

Non-invasive rapid diagnostics and women’s health monitoring from the comfort of your home, simply using menstrual fluid and regular blood.
The technology targets gynecological cancers and disorders, breast cancer, sexually transmitted infections, and Alzheimer’s disease. It can also inform you of physiological parameters such as pH, glucose, cholesterol, ketones, and salts.

How Does it Work?
CLEBO will be a portable device

  • A tampon or pad should be inserted inside of the device.
  • Blood will be extracted by the plunger and delivered through a filtering system to the biosensor array module.
  • When the analysis is completed, data will be  transferred by Bluetooth transceiver module to smartphone/laptop.
  • Depending on sensory cartridge use, you can see disease diagnostics or health monitoring results.

Non-invasive rapid viral diagnostics provides the first rapid (5-10 min), cost-effective ($3-5 per test cartridge), accurate test with an ultra-low limit of detection (LOD) comparable to PCR. In addition, it is
equipped with wireless communication that allows the user to receive results on a personal smartphone/PC without the need to visit a laboratory or doctor’s office. During the COVID-19 time, we developed electrochemical immunosensors for the detection of COVID-19 virus with the limit of detection comparable with PCR. The LOD of our rapid covid test (~ 1000-10000 virion/ml) is lower by three orders of magnitude than the LOD of commercially available rapid tests. 


Electrochemical device for explosives detection. Emitech developed one of the most sensitive microsensors in the world (limit of detection of 150 femtograms) for explosive detection based on a proprietary method (see our patents and publications) combining nanostructured materials and photonic crystals formed by the infiltration of emissive polymer inside nanopores. Funded by several SBIR projects from the US Army, Department of State, and Department of Homeland Security, three generations of explosive detecting devices were developed, tested, and validated. 

  • Transparent Conductors 

Our invention of the percolation pattern for printing of transparent conductor (TC) resulted in the fabrication of TC with performance of Transparency = 95% and Surface Resistance = 2 Ω /sq, one of the best in the world at this time. 

  • IR Photodetectors Hybrid, Solar Cells and Bolometers  

A unique approach was evolved involving “double nanostructures” for highly efficient bolometers, IR photodetectors, and hybrid solar cells. As demonstrated in our patents and publications, organic-inorganic nanocomposite provides an excellent interface for photo carrier separation followed by charge collection at opposite electrodes. Innovative nanocomposites from carbon nanotubes polymers and nanoporous silicon were fabricated and optimized with a high photoconversion efficiency.  

  • Carbon Nanotubes – Polymers Actuators and Flexible Field Effect Transistors 

We were the first in the world to discover and investigate a gigantic photo- actuation. Previously, photo-actuation demonstrated mechanical movement/displacement under the light just on a nano/micron scale. Our carbon nanotube-polymer composites were capable of achieving displacement (photo-elastic response) on a millimeter scale under daylight. The same nanocomposite demonstrated extremely stable electro-actuation (more than one million movements without amplitude reduction) and pronounced field effects for flexible substrates which are very unusual for such types of interfaces.